Definition essay of intrinsic motivation, Intrinsic Motivation in Education Analytical Essay

Definition essay of intrinsic motivation, Intrinsic Motivation in Education Analytical Essay

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Dunker, K. (1945). On Problem Solving. Psychological Monographs.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Definition essay of intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic Motivation: How to Pick Up Healthy Motivation Techniques

Intrinsic motivation is when you are motivated by personal satisfaction or enjoyment instead of external factors like reward or punishment. There are ways to make tasks more intrinsically motivating.

Intrinsic motivation is the act of doing something without any obvious external rewards. You do it because it’s enjoyable and interesting, rather than because of an outside incentive or pressure to do it, such as a reward or deadline.

An example of intrinsic motivation would be reading a book because you enjoy reading and have an interest in the story or subject, rather than reading because you have to write a report on it to pass a class.

There have been a number of different proposed theories to explain intrinsic motivation and how it works. Some experts believe that all behavior is driven by external reward, such as money, status, or food. In intrinsically motivated behaviors, the reward is the activity itself.

The most recognized theory of intrinsic motivation was first based on people’s needs and drives. Hunger, thirst, and sex are biological needs that we’re driven to pursue in order to live and be healthy.

Just like these biological needs, people also have psychological needs that must be satisfied in order to develop and thrive. These include the need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.

Along with satisfying these underlying psychological needs, intrinsic motivation also involves seeking out and engaging in activities that we find challenging, interesting, and internally rewarding without the prospect of any external reward.

Intrinsic motivation comes from within, while extrinsic motivation arises from outside. When you’re intrinsically motivated, you engage in an activity solely because you enjoy it and get personal satisfaction from it.

When you’re extrinsically motivated, you do something in order to gain an external reward. This can mean getting something in return, such as money, or avoiding getting into trouble, such as losing your job.

Motivation Goals
Intrinsic You do the activity because it’s internally rewarding. You may do it because it’s fun, enjoyable, and satisfying. Goals come from within and the outcomes satisfy your basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Extrinsic You do the activity in order to get an external reward in return. Goals are focused on an outcome and don’t satisfy your basic psychological needs. Goals involve external gains, such as money, fame, power, or avoiding consequences.

You’ve likely experienced examples of intrinsic motivation throughout your entire life without giving it much thought.

Some examples of intrinsic motivation are:

  • participating in a sport because it’s fun and you enjoy it rather than doing it to win an award
  • learning a new language because you like experiencing new things, not because your job requires it
  • spending time with someone because you enjoy their company and not because they can further your social standing
  • cleaning because you enjoy a tidy space rather than doing it to avoid making your spouse angry
  • playing cards because you enjoy the challenge instead of playing to win money
  • exercising because you enjoy physically challenging your body instead of doing it to lose weight or fit into an outfit
  • volunteering because you feel content and fulfilled rather than needing it to meet a school or work requirement
  • going for a run because you find it relaxing or are trying to beat a personal record, not to win a competition
  • taking on more responsibility at work because you enjoy being challenged and feeling accomplished, rather than to get a raise or promotion
  • painting a picture because you feel calm and happy when you paint rather than selling your art to make money

Everyone’s different and that includes what motivates us and our perspectives of rewards. Some people are more intrinsically motivated by a task while another person sees the same activity extrinsically.

Both can be effective, but research suggests that extrinsic rewards should be used sparingly because of the overjustification effect. Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation when used in certain situations or used too often. The rewards may lose their value when you reward behavior that was already intrinsically motivating. Some people also perceive extrinsic reinforcement as coercion or bribery.

The overjustification effect has inspired an entire field of study that focuses on students and how to help them reach their full potential. Though experts are divided on whether extrinsic rewards have a beneficial or negative effect on intrinsic motivation, a recent study showed that rewards may actually encourage intrinsic motivation when given early in a task.

Researchers examined how reward timing influenced intrinsic motivation. They found that giving an immediate bonus for working on a task, rather than waiting until the task was completed, increased interest and enjoyment in it. Getting an earlier bonus increased motivation and persistence in the activity that continued even after the award was removed.

Understanding the factors that promote intrinsic motivation can help you see how it works and why it can be beneficial. These factors include:

  • Curiosity. Curiosity pushes us to explore and learn for the sole pleasure of learning and mastering.
  • Challenge. Being challenged helps us work at a continuously optimal level work toward meaningful goals.
  • Control. This comes from our basic desire to control what happens and make decisions that affect the outcome.
  • Recognition. We have an innate need to be appreciated and satisfaction when our efforts are recognized and appreciated by others.
  • Cooperation. Cooperating with others satisfies our need for belonging. We also feel personal satisfaction when we help others and work together to achieve a shared goal.
  • Competition. Competition poses a challenge and increases the importance we place on doing well.
  • Fantasy. Fantasy involves using mental or virtual images to stimulate your behavior. An example is a virtual game that requires you to answer a question or solve a problem to move to the next level. Some motivation apps use a similar approach.

The following are some things you can do to help you practice better intrinsic motivation:

  • Look for the fun in work and other activities or find ways to make tasks engaging for yourself.
  • Find meaning by focusing on your value, the purpose of a task, and how it helps others.
  • Keep challenging yourself by setting attainable goals that focus on mastering a skill, not on external gains.
  • Help someone in need, whether it’s a friend who could use a hand at home or lending a hand at a soup kitchen.
  • Create a list of things you genuinely love to do or have always wanted to do and choose something on the list to do whenever you have time or are feeling uninspired.
  • Participate in a competition and focus on the camaraderie and how well you perform instead of on winning.
  • Before starting a task, visualize a time that you felt proud and accomplished and focus on those feelings as you work to conquer the task.

There are things that you can do to help foster intrinsic motivation in your children. Parents often use external rewards or pressure to try to get their children to perform certain tasks, such as doing homework or cleaning their room.

The following are ways that may help foster intrinsic motivation in your child.

  • Give them choices instead of making an activity a requirement. Having a say makes them more intrinsically motivated.
  • Encourage independent thinking by giving them space to work on a task alone and reporting back to you when they’re satisfied with the result.
  • Make activities fun by turning tasks like reading or picking up their toys into a game.
  • Present opportunities for your child to feel successful by assigning a developmentally appropriate skill for them to fine-tune.
  • Encourage them to focus on the internal benefits of activities, such as how good it makes them feel instead of what they can get for doing it.

Intrinsic motivation can be applied to all aspects of your life and has been shown to be an effective way to improve performance. By changing the focus to the internal rewards of a task, such as satisfaction and enjoyment, you can better motivate yourself and others.

Last medically reviewed on February 11, 2019

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Intrinsic Motivation in Education Analytical Essay

Today English is a language that unites various nations. People learn it to gain more opportunities in life and to communicate with foreigners. Still, learning English as a foreign language (EFL) can be advantageous only when a person is motivated. According to Khodashenas et al. (2013), motivation is the “the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitudes toward learning the language” (p. 766).

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It makes students willing to study and encourages them to achieve more and streamlines the very process of learning. Lack of motivation is thought to be one of the biggest barriers that is faced by parents and teaching staff.

Lile (2002) claims that even indecent behavior in the classroom and underachievement are connected with this issue, as the student occurs to be unable to place priorities appropriately. As a consequence, less intelligent students have better performance than more bright ones due to their high motivation. Being motivated students become able to deal with the tasks of various degrees of difficulty.

When the process of learning is taken into consideration, the primary purpose of motivation is to grasp students’ attention and desire to get to know something new and direct them towards it. There are two main types of motivation according to self-determination theory. Extrinsic one comes from the outside. It can be a wish to be rewarded or just to escape penalty. Intrinsic motivation, in its turn, occurs within a person. It is more general and can be seen as a desire to study.

Carreira (2005) claims that intrinsic motivation refers to “motivation to encourage in an activity for its own sake” (p. 40). Dailey (2009) has a similar view and describes it as the individuals desire to conduct the activity for personal enjoyment that entails the accomplishment of the activity regardless any external factors.

The student receives satisfaction from the process of learning and personal achievements but not from the feedback that followed them. That is why intrinsically motivated students are more diligent. They are always interested in studying and never miss the tasks. They prefer to deal with challenging assignments because they need more effort and understanding, and their accomplishment brings much satisfaction.

According to the studies on intrinsic motivation for learning languages, there are three types of it:

  • Intrinsic motivation to know, which is connected with the desire to manage particular actions in order to receive satisfaction and pleasure related to gaining new knowledge;
  • Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishments, which refers to the attempts to understand the task and cope with it;
  • Intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, which deals with positive emotions that occur when studying (excitement, joy, etc.) (Noels 2001).

The importance of the intrinsic motivation lies in the fact that it is a crucial characteristic, which allows the student to become a successful language learner. Unfortunately, while studying, students tend to become less enthusiastic, and they lose their inner motivation with the course of time.

Learning EFL is a tough task, as the students do not use it in everyday life and do not realize the necessity to study something they do not currently need. When the teachers’ attempt to improve students’ intrinsic motivation and create positive environment occurs to be not enough, extrinsic motives become helpful (Madrid & Canado 2001).

Intrinsic motivation is said to be improved when the students have an opportunity to gain more autonomy. Thus, Khodashenas et al. (2013) believe that the students who realize the necessity to learn English as it is likely to be needed for their career are willing to participate in various activities when studying and tend to have more inner motivation.

Ushioda (2008) also supports this opinion and claims that the students who are intrinsically motivated show more involvement in the learning process and utilize numerous problem-solving strategies. Lucas (2010) noted that there is a connection between language skills and motivation.

It is mentioned that new knowledge and ability to cope with the assignment intrinsically motivates students to enhance their reading skills on different levels. It was found that the learning strategy is not as crucial as the type of the tasks that the teacher selects. Proving interest, fun and setting decent goals, the teacher stimulates students’ intrinsic motivation. Except for that the study showed that the girls tend to be more intrinsically motivated than boys; however, this issue requires further investigation (Khodashenas et al. 2013).

When speaking about learning EFL, intrinsic motivation is said to be influenced by tree main factors:

  • Physical conditions that include the temperature in the class, the lightning, the way the desks are situated, etc. affects learning greatly. The positive school climate makes the students willing to participate;
  • Teachers are engaged in developing motivation due to their attitude. Being supportive and positively approached they encourage students to study;
  • Teaching methods can promote intrinsic motivation as they determine the way the lesson is held including the variety of tasks and feedback (Tuan 2012).

The research conducted by Sucaromana (2013) showed that the students who have high intrinsic motivation for learning English also have a positive attitude towards this language. It is claimed that the connection between these factors is crucial, as they both develop from the person’s self. The feeling of satisfaction from the learning climate is also underlined and said to be one of the main factors that make students treat EFL positively and encourage them to study.

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Intrinsic motivation is connected with the inherited traits of character. Still, it does not mean that it cannot be awakened. When a teacher creates a positive environment and reduces the level of stress, the student’s attitude towards learning changes.

During EFL classes, the teacher should be targeted at the creation of the interest. As the instructions are given in the foreign language, the students may find it difficult not just to cope with the task but to understand what should be done, which affects their motivation adversely.

Thus, it is crucial to plan a lesson so that every student can be active during it. The teacher is to be flexible and energetic so that one can easily find a contact with the students and make the class relatively simple and interesting. It is necessary to change the activities (reading, writing, etc.), as routines actions frustrate the students and reduce the satisfaction they receive when completing the tasks.

The teacher should also explain the tasks the students find difficult to cope with. It is critical not to help to find the solution but to encourage the students to do it on their own. In this way, they will try to solve a challenging task when they meet it instead of refusing to start.

The kind of material that the teacher uses also has an influence on the students’ intrinsic motivation. It should be not only relevant to the topic but also interesting and achievable for the students. Otherwise, they will face lots of troubles when dealing with it and will not receive expected positive feelings. It is advantageous to be focused on the student who understands the language less than others when explaining the task. As a result, the whole class will understand what is needed from them and be internally motivated.

Except for essay buy online that, it is important to be caring. The students should feel that the teacher is supportive and patient. Such approach reduces stress and makes the environment in the class more positive. If the teacher can show that one sees potential in the students, they will be determined to learn more without being afraid of punishment.

The teacher’s energy and mood also affects the students, as they learn by example and reflect his/her attitudes. Thus, when the teacher had positive energy, there will be a comfortable atmosphere in the class and the students will be willing to learn, which promotes their intrinsic motivation (Lile 2002).

So it can be concluded that motivation is crucial for EFL classes. It allows the teachers perform their work perfectly and makes the students willing to study.

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Intrinsic motivation depends on different factors that are to be considered by the teacher. It also tends to reduce with the course of time when speaking about the ELF students due to the fact that many of them do not realize the necessity of studying the language. To develop intrinsic motivation, one is to create a positive atmosphere in the class, provide a variety of interesting assignments and be supportive.

Reference List

Carreira, О 2005, ‘The framework of motivation in second language acquisition’, The Keiai Journal of International Studies, vol. 1, no. 16, pp. 39-64.

Khodashenas, M, Amouzegar, E, Farahani, S, Hasheminasab, S & Kazemian, V 2013, ‘Role of motivation in language learning’, International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 766-773.

Lile, W 2002, ‘Motivation in the ESL classroom’, The Internet TESL Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, [no pagination], via ITESLJ database.

Lucas, R 2010, ‘A study on intrinsic motivation factors in second language learning among selected freshman students’, The Philippine ESL Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 6-23.

Noels, K 2001, ‘Learning Spanish as a second language’, Language Learning, buy an essay online vol. 51, no. 1, 107-144.

Sucaromana, U 2013, ‘The effects of blended learning on the intrinsic motivation of Thai EFL students’, English Language Teaching, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 141-147.

Tuan, L 2012, ‘An empirical research into EFL learners’ motivation’, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 430-439.

Ushioda, E 2008, ‘Motivation and good language learners’, in C Griffiths (ed), Lessons from good language learners, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 19-34.

Definition essay of intrinsic motivation, Definition essay of intrinsic motivation

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